AI Assistants
Last updated on January 25, 20248 min read
AI Assistants

AI agents and assistants are transformative tools across various domains. The future promises exciting advancements with integration with other technologies. 

Editors’ Note: This glossary entry discusses both AI Agents and AI Assistants.

An agent, in the context of artificial intelligence, is a system capable of sensing and interacting with its environment. It uses sensors to detect environmental inputs and actuators to affect its surroundings. In essence, an agent perceives its environment and takes actions based on these perceptions, much like humans use their senses to gather information and respond to their surroundings.

Consider an NLP model as an agent:

  • Percepts (Input): Textual prompts or information provided to the NLP model for processing.

  • Environment (Context): The operational setting of the NLP model, such as chat interfaces or applications requiring language understanding.

  • Sensors (Comprehension): The model's components (like attention mechanisms and transformers) that process and interpret textual input.

  • Learning Element (Adaptation): The algorithms within the NLP model that enable it to learn from data and improve over time.

  • Decision-Making Component (Interpretation): The model's capability to generate coherent and contextually appropriate text.

  • Actuators (Output): The part of the model that translates its internal processes into readable language.

Actions (Language Outputs): The actual text generated by the NLP model in response to inputs, such as sentences or paragraphs.

Fig. 1 Components of an intelligent agent. Source: Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach

This framework—sensors for information, percepts for input, actuators for actions, and the environment as context—offers a high-level view of how intelligent agents navigate and interact. Intelligent agents automate tasks, boost efficiency, and adapt to change, creating personalized user experiences. Their perceptive, learning, and decision-making abilities drive innovation, making them integral to technological innovation across diverse NLP and computer vision research applications.

What are AI Agents?

When we think of AI agents, we think of autonomous driving cars, but they are widely applied in the entertainment, financial, and healthcare sectors. To clearly define AI agents, we can turn to Stuart Russell and Peter Norvig's book "Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach," where an agent is structurally defined as the combination of its architecture and program.

Architecture: Refers to the physical components that make up the agent. This would include the sensors, actuators, and computational hardware that enable it to perceive and interact with its environment. For example:

  • A robot's architecture would consist of cameras and lidar for vision, wheels/legs and motors for movement, a computer brain, etc.

  • A virtual assistant's architecture would be made up of microphones for audio input, network capability for retrieving information, a speech/text multimodal architecture for interpreting the input, and speech/text interfaces for output.

Program: This refers to the actual AI algorithms, code, and logic that run on the architecture to determine the agent's behavior and actions. Some examples:

  • A self-driving car relies on vision processing, planning, and control programs to perceive the road and drive safely.

  • A chatbot runs dialogue and language understanding programs to interpret text/voice inputs and form relevant responses.

  • Trading algorithms are programs that analyze market data and execute trades autonomously.

While the architecture equips the agent with sensory and action capabilities, the program endows it with the capacity for higher-level reasoning, learning, and decision-making. This synergistic combination enables the agent to operate intelligently across various applications, such as navigating roads, conducting conversations, or analyzing market data.

AI agents vs AI assistants

AI agents act autonomously towards solving broad challenges. They exhibit flexible decision-making in dynamic environments based on internal perceptions and learning.

AI assistants serve a supporting role for specific human needs. They adhere to narrowly commanded objectives and lack autonomous preferences. Their decisions require human approval.

In essence, AI agents have higher reasoning for open-ended goals, while assistants possess limited self-direction optimized for responsiveness. The key difference is the extent of contextual autonomy vs. constraint by human oversight.

Types of AI Agents

AI agents can be categorized based on their functionality into reactive, deliberative, hybrid, and collaborative types:

Reactive Agents

These agents operate on simple, predefined rules, reacting to current inputs without retaining historical context. They are designed for rapid response to environmental changes. 

Example: A basic line-following robot that adjusts its path based solely on immediate sensor data.

Deliberative Agents  

These agents leverage explicit reasoning methods and symbolic representations to achieve goals. They maintain expanded internal world models to apply planning, analysis, and prediction techniques. 

Example: Self-driving cars that use digitized maps and sensor data to model the surrounding environment and plan safe navigation routes from origin to destination.

Hybrid Agents   

These agents combine the quick, rule-based responses of reactive components with the complex, contextual decision-making of deliberative elements.

Example: Intelligent assistants like Alexa, Siri, and Google Assistant fall into this category, handling routine queries with set rules while relying on more advanced logic for complex interactions.

Collaborative Agents

Collaborative AI systems have multiple agents sharing information and coordinating actions towards shared objectives. Sub-components specialize in different functions, and collaborative interleukin allows complex problem-solving. 

Example: Customer-facing chatbots that can query backend expert systems and human agents to handle questions beyond their knowledge scope.

AI Assistants: Hybrid and Collaborative Agents

The definition of an AI agent remains vague. Some view agents through a traditional machine learning lens—intelligent agents. Practitioners commonly use the term along with large language models (LLMs). This overemphasis on LLMs can cause some misconception that intelligent assistants (AI assistants) powered by them—LLM agents—represent the totality of AI agents.

However, agents encompass more than just LLMs. They include the whole pipeline, from perception to action across modalities within an environment. Understanding this diversity is crucial for meaningful discussions about AI agents and assistants.

User Interaction Modalities

AI assistants streamline user interaction through multiple channels, including text and Interactive Voice Response (IVR) systems.

  • Text-Based Interactions: Here, LLMs act as the 'brain' of the assistant, interpreting text commands and responding appropriately. For instance, a command to find local restaurants is processed using internet resources like Google Maps, and the assistant then provides a text-based response with the requested information. The elements:

  • Environment: This is the chat interface where a user gives the text command, for example, “scan local restaurants around my location and provide me with the best prices.”

  • Perception: Using the input text and the resources to which it has access, such as Google Maps, it makes sense of these tools in the environment and takes action.

  • Learning element: Uses storage memory and processing power, available knowledge, planning, and reasoning to generalize appropriate output.

  • Action: Uses the tools available through APIs and an output mechanism you have specified. In this case, you want a text response with all the restaurants with the best prices, and it returns that to you. In ML monitoring, this could be using the LLM agent to orchestrate observability for your models and give you reports.

  • Speech-Based Interactive Voice Response (IVR): IVR systems enable spoken language engagement, offering a natural and hands-free mode of interaction. These systems work through voice prompts and keypad entries, processing user inputs to provide information or route calls. They integrate with databases and live servers to deliver various services, from speech-to-text transcription to customer support.

Benefits of Interaction Modalities

Both text and speech-based interactions offer unique advantages:

Efficiency and Convenience:

  • Text-based: Provides flexibility and asynchronous communication through text.

  • Speech-based: Allows hands-free access to information through spoken commands.


  • Text-based: Benefit users with hearing impairments or those who prefer written communication.

  • Speech-based: Enhances accessibility for users struggling with typing or reading.

Task Automation:

  • Text-based: Automate tasks like information retrieval or ML workflow tasks.

  • Speech-based: Streamlines routine tasks, reducing the need for live agent intervention.

They contribute to a versatile and inclusive user experience, meeting diverse preferences and accessibility needs.

Challenges and Considerations

Despite their benefits, AI assistants and agents pose challenges that must be addressed to ensure effective and safe deployment.

  • Accuracy and Reliability: These are paramount, as errors can have varying consequences. For instance, a malfunction in a medical diagnosis system can be far more critical than an error in a retail chatbot. Real-world examples, like the misinterpretation of commands in virtual assistants, illustrate the need for ongoing improvement in this area.

  • Operational Limitations: These agents may struggle with multitasking and can sometimes enter infinite output loops. This is often due to current limitations in AI algorithms and a lack of advanced contextual understanding.

  • User Experience and Interpretability: Users may find understanding how these agents operate challenging, complicating troubleshooting efforts. Designing AI agents that are both powerful and interpretable is a key challenge in this field.

  • Cost Implications: Running sophisticated LLM models, particularly for recursive tasks, can be financially demanding. This is a critical consideration for businesses looking to implement these technologies.

  • Privacy and Security: Processing vast amounts of personal data raises significant privacy and security concerns. Ensuring data protection and addressing vulnerabilities is essential to maintaining user trust.

  • Ethical and Bias Considerations: AI systems can inadvertently perpetuate biases in their training data that can lead to unfair or unethical outcomes.


AI agents and assistants are transformative tools across various domains. The future promises exciting advancements with integration with other technologies. 

The hype about LLMs and AI agents will introduce a rush to create more agents and assistants to automate more tasks. Open AI and their counterparts make creating and deploying AI agents easy. Frameworks like Langchain, AutoGen, and Twilio are now used to create LLM-based agents and IVRs to automate your tasks.

As we embrace the potential of AI agents, thoughtful deployment and ongoing evaluation will be key to maximizing their benefits while reducing potential risks.

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